It can be difficult to move away from an old heating system and opt for a new heating system that little is known about. However, if you have an outdated drive that needs to be replaced, it can be exciting to see the various heating technologies available as replacement options. All of these systems are available in various designs and sizes to suit your home. Contact a professional HVAC company for more information on installing or replacing a new heating system.
Home Heating System Types
1. Forced Air Distribution System
In an oven (usually gas-fired), the air is forced through a series of channels. This distributes the heated and regulated air throughout the house. Kamado can heat the air with electricity, propane, or oil, but most households in the United States use natural gas.
Gas stoves are the most popular type of heating system because the air conditioner can use a forced air distribution system (duct) in the summer.
2.Radiator distribution system
Boilers are another common heating system. They send heat or steam through the pipes to provide heating. This allows for zone heating and cooling but is quite expensive to install and expensive to implement.
Kamadoya and boilers are called central heating systems because the heat is generated in the central area of the house and distributed throughout the house.
3. Heat Pump
Heat pumps can be used for both heatings and cooling the house. They use refrigerants and electricity to transfer heat instead of generating heat directly as in gas stoves. As a result, it is often much more efficient than other types of heating systems. Unfortunately, temperatures work best in warmer climates, where temperatures rarely drop below freezing.
4. Hybrid Heating
The hybrid heating combines the energy efficiency of a heat pump with the performance of a gas stove. In most cases, heat pumps either heat or cool your home. The oven only starts at extreme temperatures.
Since it is not based on just one system, the load on both units is also significantly reduced and the need for repairs and replacements is significantly reduced.
5. Ductless Mini-Splits
The mini-split unit eliminates the need for multiple air ducts and enables the creation of separate HVAC zones, each with its own thermostat. This is very useful in large houses and in additional areas where ducts are not installed.
6. Radiant Heating
Radiant heating conducts hot or electrical heat through special floor pipes (possibly ceilings and walls). Heat can be generated from oil, gas, propane, or electricity.
The radiant heating distribution system lasts a long time, but repairs can be very expensive if a problem occurs. The duration of the radiant heat depends on its heat source system.
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In addition to the type of heating system installed, you will learn about other ways of influencing decision-making.
7. Baseboard Heaters
A baseboard heater, usually reserved as an auxiliary heater or booster heater, is an effective and economical option. When it comes to baseboard heating, you have two options: electric or hot water. Contact your HVAC contractor for more information on baseboard heating.
Type of Heating System
A hot water supply is a heat transfer process that uses a source of energy to heat water above its initial temperature. Typical domestic uses of hot water include cooking, cleaning, bathing, and heating. In industry, hot water or steam-heated water has many uses.
In the countryside, water is traditionally heated in water heaters, kettles, kettles, pots, or containers known as copper. These metal containers that heat batches of water do not create a continuous supply of water that is heated to a predetermined temperature. In rare cases, hot water is rare in nature and usually comes from natural hot springs. The temperature changes with the rate of consumption and gets colder with increasing flow rate.
The equipment that continuously energizes the water heater is called a water heater, water heater, water heater, boiler, heat exchanger, geyser (only for South Africa), or calorimeter. These names vary from region to region depending on whether drinking or non-potable water is heated for domestic or industrial use and what energy sources they have. In household appliances, drinking water that is heated for purposes other than heating is also referred to as hot water (hot water).
Fossil fuels (natural gas, liquid gas, petroleum) or solid fuels are usually used to heat water. They can be used directly or electricity can be generated to heat water. The electricity used to heat water can also come from other sources such as nuclear power and renewable energy. Alternative energies such as solar energy, heat pumps, hot water heat recovery, and geothermal energy can also be combined with fossil fuels and electrically operated backup systems to heat water.
District heating is provided in densely populated urban areas in some countries. This is especially true for Scandinavia, Finland, and Poland. District heating systems provide energy for hot water and heat from combined heat and power plants (CHP), industrial waste heat, combustion systems, geothermal energy, and central solar heating. The tap water is actually heated in a heat exchanger at the consumer’s premises. Due to the high availability of district heating systems, consumers generally do not have a backup system in the building.
In the United States, the most common domestic hot water is heated by natural gas, electrical resistance, or heat pumps. Electric heat pump water heaters are much more efficient than electric resistance water heaters, but they are also expensive to buy. Some energy services companies provide funding to customers to offset the high upfront costs of energy-efficient water heaters.
Hot water heating systems store thermal energy with water and transport it from the burning fuel to the place where it is used. All hot water systems (hot water) consist of five basic parts.
- Firebox, a room in which fuel is burned.
- A water tank that absorbs and stores heat.
- Pump and hydraulic system for the transport of hot water.
- A heat exchanger to deliver heat where it is needed.
- A control system that controls the use of heat.
Three factors are important when designing a wood heater:
- Combustion. The system should be designed so that the fuel burns as completely as possible.
- Heat transfer. The design should bring as much warmth into the water as possible.
- Heat storage. The system should try to dissipate as much unused heat as possible.
Furnaces Heating System
Most homes in North America rely on central stoves to provide heat. The stove blows hot air through ducts that direct hot air through air registers or grills to rooms throughout the house. This type of heating system is known as a hot air distribution system or forced hot air. It can be operated with electricity, natural gas, or heating oil.
In gas or oil stoves, fuel is mixed with air and burned. The flame heats a metal heat exchanger in which the heat is transferred to the air. The air is forced into the heat exchanger by the “Air Handler” oven fan and pushed through the duct downstream of the heat exchanger. In the furnace, the combustion products are released from the building through the exhausts.
The old “atmospheric” stoves were released directly into the atmosphere, wasting about 30% of fuel energy keeping the flue gas hot enough to be safely lifted out of the chimney. Today’s less efficient stoves use an “inductor” fan to direct flue gases through the heat exchanger and direct the draft into the chimney, greatly reducing this waste.
The “condensation oven” is designed to recover much of this waste heat by cooling the exhaust gases to temperatures well below 140 ° F, at which point the water vapor in the exhaust gas condenses into water. This is the main characteristic of high-performance furnaces (or boilers). These are usually ventilated with plastic pipes from the side walls.
New reactor standards are currently being developed by the US Department of Energy and will be completed in spring 2016. The current oven standards have not been updated since 1987.
The heating control regulates the switching on and off of the various components of the heating system. The most important control from your point of view is the thermostat, which switches the system (or at least the energy distribution system) on and off so that you feel comfortable. A typical compressed air system has a single thermostat. However, the heating system has other internal controls, such as B. an “upper limit switch” which is part of an invisible but important set of safety controls.
The fossil fuel furnace or boiler efficiency is a useful measure of the amount of heat produced per unit of input energy (fuel). Combustion efficiency is the simplest measure. The efficiency of the running system. Combustion efficiency is the number of miles per gallon a car travels at 55 miles per hour on a freeway.
In the US, furnace efficiency is governed by an Annual Minimum Fuel Use Efficiency (AFUE). AFUE estimates the seasonal efficiency, mean peak, and part-load conditions. AFUE contains estimates of the power consumption of ventilation systems, induction fans, and controls, taking into account start-up, cooling, and other operating losses that occur under actual operating conditions. AFUE is like a car’s mileage between full tanks, including highway driving and stop-and-go traffic. The higher the AFUE, the more efficient the furnace or boiler is.
The boiler is a special water heater. The stove carries the heat with hot air, while the boiler system distributes the heat with hot water. Heat dissipates heat as it passes through radiators and other devices in the rooms of the house. The cold water is then returned to the boiler and heated. Hot water systems are often referred to as hot water systems.
Residential boilers typically use natural gas or kerosene as fuel.
In steam boilers, which are not very common in private households these days, the water boils, the steam conducts heat around the house and condenses when the water in the radiator cools. Oil and natural gas are commonly used.
Instead of a ventilation and duct system, the boiler uses a pump to circulate hot water from the pipe to the radiator. Some hot water systems circulate water through plastic pipes on the floor. This is a system called underfloor heating (see “Advanced Heating”). Important boiler controls include thermostats, water tanks, and valves that regulate the circulation and temperature of the water. The cost is not trivial, but in general, it is much easier to install thermostats and “zone” controls in individual rooms using a hot water system instead of compressed air. Some checks are a standard feature of the new boiler, others can be added to save energy (see the “Heating engineer changes” section on the “Heating maintenance” page).
Like ovens, gas condensing boilers are relatively common and much more efficient than non-condensing boilers (unless very sophisticated controls are used). Oil-fired condensing boilers are not common in the US for several reasons, due to the low heat potential and the potential for increased contamination with conventional heating oils.
The heat pump is only a two-way air conditioner (see detailed description in the section cooling system). During the summer, air conditioners work by transferring heat from a relatively cool interior to a relatively warm exterior. In winter, heat pumps reverse this trick by extracting heat from the cold using electrical systems and releasing this heat into the house. Almost all heat pumps use a hot air supply system to move heated air throughout the house.
There are two fairly common types of heat pumps. Air source heat pumps use outside air as a heat source in winter and heat sinks in summer. Geothermal heat pumps (also known as geothermal, GeoExchange, or GX) get heat from the ground, where temperatures are constant all year round. Air source heat pumps are far more common than underground heat pumps because they are cheap and easy to install. However, geothermal heat pumps are much more efficient and are often chosen by consumers who want to stay in the same house longer or who want a more sustainable life. For details on how to determine if a heat pump is suitable for the climate, see Fuel Options.
Air source heat pumps are installed as central air conditioning, but underground heat pumps have “loops” at the bottom, usually long, shallow trenches (3 to 6 feet deep) or one or more vertical wells. The specific method depends on the experience of the installer, the size of the property, the subsoil, and the landscape. Alternatively, some systems draw groundwater and pass it through a heat exchanger instead of using a coolant. The groundwater is then returned to the aquifer.
The electricity in the heat pump is used to move, instead of generating heat, so the heat pump can provide more energy than it consumes. The ratio of the heating energy supplied to the energy consumed is called the coefficient of performance (COP), and typical values are between 1.5 and 3.5. It is a “stationary” indicator and cannot be compared directly to the Seasonal Heating Capacity Factor (HSPF), which is a mandatory seasonal indicator for assessing the heating efficiency of air source heat pumps. Conversion between measurements is not straightforward, but underground heat source units are generally more efficient than air-source heat pumps.
Direct Heating System
Gas space heating
Direct gas heaters are popular in some areas. This includes free-standing wall stoves. All of this is characterized by the lack of channels and relatively low heat emission. Since there are no pipes, it is ideal for heating a single room. If you need to heat multiple rooms, you need to keep the doors between the rooms open or use different heating methods. A better model uses a “sealed combustion air” system in which pipes are installed through the wall to supply combustion air and carry away combustion products. These units provide acceptable performance, especially in cabins and other buildings where large temperature differences between the bedroom and the main room are tolerated. The model can be burned with natural gas or propane, a little combustion kerosene.
Unventilated gas stove – bad idea
Ventless gas and kerosene space heaters have been in the market for decades but are heavily rejected for health and safety reasons. Known by manufacturers as “no ventilation” gas stoves, these appliances include self-contained wall stoves and open fireplaces with ceramic logs that are not actually attached to the chimney. That will happen. Manufacturers claim their products are efficient enough to be safe for residents.
However, this statement is only valid if you keep it open near the window for proper ventilation. This defeats the purpose of the auxiliary heating. Risks include exposure to combustion byproducts as described in Ventilation and Oxygen Deficiency (these heaters must be equipped with low oxygen sensors). Because of these hazards, at least five states (California, Minnesota, Massachusetts, Montana, and Alaska) have banned domestic use, as have many cities in the United States and Canada.
Electric Space Heaters
Portable (plug-in) electric heaters are cheap to buy but expensive to use. These resistance heaters include “oil-filled” and “quartz infrared” heaters. Like a toaster or iron, they convert electrical current from the socket directly into heat. As explained below in the selection of the new systems, a lot of electricity is required to provide the same amount of useful heat that natural gas and oil can provide on-site.
The 1,500-watt plug-in heater uses almost the entire capacity of a 15-ampere branch circuit. So adding a load can trip circuit breakers or blow fuses. The cost of running a 1,500-watt unit for one hour is easy to calculate. This is 1.5 times your electricity bill in cents per kilowatt-hour. At the national average price (12 ¢ kWh for electricity), the operating costs of the heater are 18 ¢ per hour, which is quickly above the purchase price. For example, if the alternative is used intermittently and a large investment is required to improve the channel in a particular area, this is the “worst” solution. Note that electrically persistent heat is usually the most expensive form of heat and is rarely recommended.
The “electric baseboard heater” is similar to a plug-in space heater, but it is another type of resistance heater, except that it is hard-wired. It has two main advantages. The low installation costs and easy installation of thermostats in individual rooms can reduce the heat in unused rooms. As with all resistance systems, unless the house is “super-insulated”, the running costs are generally very high.
Wood-Burning and Pellet Stoves
If you enjoy stacking firewood, stoves, and kamados, then heating wood makes a lot of sense in rural areas. The price of wood is usually cheaper than gas, oil, and electricity. The savings can be significant when you cut your tree. Pollutants from burning wood have become a problem in parts of the country, forcing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enforce regulations to control pollutant emissions from wood stoves. As a result, the new model burns very cleanly. Pellet stoves have many advantages over wood stoves. They are less harmful to the environment than wood-burning stoves and offer the user superior comfort, temperature control, and indoor air quality.
Gas fireplaces (and most wood-burning fireplaces) are an essential part of room decor and provide warm light (and a way to dispose of secret documents) but are usually not an effective source of heat. Chimneys are generally more than they deliver, as is the case with regular appliances, where air from the room is drawn into the chimney for combustion and dilution. Therefore a lot of hot air is sucked through the device and has to be replaced by cold outside air. It also loses a lot of heat. On the other hand, if the fireplace has closed glass doors, a source of outside air, and a good chimney flap, it can provide useful heat.
Underfloor heating generally refers to a system that circulates hot water in a floor pipe. This heats the floor, which in turn heats the people who use the space. It is highly controllable, is considered efficient by its proponents, and is expensive to install. It,s also requires skilled system designers and installers who narrow down the choices of carpets and other floor coverings. This is not necessary to “cover” the heat source.
Channels, mini-split, multi-split. Condominiums are relatively rare outside of North America. “Tubeless” heat pumps are often used, which distribute energy via coolant lines instead of water or air. Large field studies in the Pacific Northwest have shown that it is cold-resistant and very affordable as an alternative to electrical resistance heating. As with terrestrial source systems, the relative immaturity of the market makes multi-split systems at home come at a high price.
In some countries, combined heat and power (CHP) or combined heat and power (heating system) in residential areas is seriously considered. The basic requirement is to use a small generator to meet some of the house’s electricity needs and recover the waste heat (usually 70% or more of the fuel’s calorific value) to heat the house (hot water or air system from the water) and to produce hot water for household use. These Heating systems are not yet widely used. Homes with high heating bills may be the cheapest as they cannot be adequately insulated. stone or brick houses.